中国水利电力对外公司
   
   Typical Projects Home>The Group>Typical Projects>Hydropower      
   
Three Gorges Project
 

The Three Gorges Project (TGP) is named after the Three Gorges reaches of the Yangtze River. The TGP is a critical project for the comprehensive harnessing and development of the Yangtze River and by far the world’s largest water conservancy project. The dam of the TGP (referred to as the Three Gorges Dam) is located in the middle reach of the water area of the Xiling Gorges in the Yangtze River with a drainage area of 1 million km2, and annual average runoff of 451 billion m3. The Three Gorges Dam site is an open valley with hard and complete granite bedrock, boasting the advantageous landscape, geological and construction conditions for the construction of a large water conservancy project.

TGP is a multi-purpose scheme that will bring huge benefits in flood control, power generation and navigation. It primarily consists of a dam, spillway structures, power plants and navigation facilities. The principle upon which TGP construction has been approached can be described as one-stage development, one-time completion, water storage in phases and continuous relocation. The dam across the Yangtze River is a concrete gravity dam, with the spillway section in the middle and the power plants and non-overflow sections located at both sides. The axial length of the dam is 2309.47 meters, the crest has an elevation of 185 meters and the dam’s highest point is 181 meters. With a normal impoundment level at 175 meters, the total storage capacity of the reservoir amounts to 39.3 billion cubic meters, of which, 22.15 billion cubic meters is assigned for flood control.

According to the preliminary design report approved by the State in July, 1993, the TGP construction is divided into three phases. Starting from the preparatory project in 1993, the total construction period is 17 years. The first phase (1993-1997) is for the construction preparation and phase-I project, marked by river closure; the second phase (1998-2003) for phase II project, marked by the reservoir initial impoundment, the electricity generation of the first batch of generating units and the double-way five-stage ship lock open to navigation; the third phase (2004-2009) for Phase-III project, marked by all the 26 generating units being put into operation and the completion of the project.

The static budget of the preliminary design of TGP formally approved by the State (based on the price at the end of May, 1993, excluding the factors of price rise or loan interest during construction) was estimated to be 90.09 billion yuan, 50.09 billion yuan of which is for the project investment and 40 billion yuan for the reservoir inundation and resettlement costs. As the construction period is longer than planned and price rises, the dynamic total investment is estimated to be 203.9 billion yuan.

The financing of the project mainly relies on the national capital (TGP Fund), revenues of the Gezhouba Hydropower Plant, policy-related bank loans, issuance of corporate bonds and equity, commercial bank loans, export credit as well as revenues from the TGP Hydropower Plant.

As of the end of December 2008, a total investment of 148.3 billion yuan has been put into the TGP project. The completion ratio of real work quantities is generally greater than the corresponding investment ratio, indicating that the budget is well controlled. It is predicted that the total dynamic investment in the TGP project will be controlled within 180 billion yuan.

Over the past decade, as the legal person of TGP, CTG has always been adhering to the principles of socialist market economy by applying a construction management system which consists of the tender system, the contract management system, and the construction supervision system, with the project legal person held responsible. During the project construction, TGP insists on management innovation, giving priority to the project quality and putting emphasis on quality management; meanwhile, a multi-level quality supervision and control system has been put in place. In order to adapt to the large scale and complexity of TGP, a progress control system based on informationized project management was established and improved, and an investment control system featuring a dual binding mechanism based on budget control and contract management of “static control and dynamic management” came into being. As a result of these systems, the project progress is proceeded as the schedule with quality up to the designed standards and investment controlled within the approved budget.

CTG has always been putting the quality of TGP as the top priority during its construction. In the course of the construction, based on the characteristics of TGP, a quality standard system superior to the existing domestic industrial standard system was established and implemented, a whole-process inspection system was established for raw material procurement to site construction, and a “4+1”quality control and supervision mechanism came into being, which consists of the self-supervision by the Contractor, the supervision and control by the Consultant, the overall planning, coordination and management by the Employer, the expertise-based inspection by the Quality Director Office, and the high-level inspection and guidance by the State Council TGP Quality Ensuring Expert Group. Since the CTG management targets of “Zero Quality Accident and Zero Safety Accident” went into practice in 2001, the site construction management has been further improved with project quality rising steadily. The high quality rate of the main body concrete work has been gradually improved from 91.31% (2003), 92.4% (2004), 92.2% (2005), 93.96% (2006) to 94.84% (2007). From 1998, the Quality Ensuring Expert Group of the State Council TGP Construction Committee has carried out 18 quality inspections on TGP and evaluated that the project quality is generally excellent under comprehensive, complete and whole-process control.

According to the TGP resettlement planning, upon completion of TGP, 20 counties and regions at Hubei Province and Chongqing Municipality will be submerged, covering 632 square kilometers of land area, 24.5 thousand hectares of farm land, 34.7315 million square meters of buildings, and 1599 industrial enterprises. Census in 1992 shows that 847.5 thousand people will be relocated, however, taking natural population growth into account, the actual number of relocated people is close to 1.3 million.

Started in 1985, the TGP resettlement has been proceeded with for 8 years on trial and put in full swing in 1993 when the TGP construction commenced. Under the policy of “development-based resettlement”, in addition to the in-place overall resettlement, some rural residents were relocated to other provinces or cities.